Section 121 of Indian Penal Code, 1860 – Explained!

Wages war The authors of the Code have deliberately used the expression ‘wages war’. The words seem naturally to import a levying of war by one who throwing off the duty of allegiance arrays himself in open defiance of his sovereign in like manner and by the like means as a foreign enemy would do, […]
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Section 123 of Indian Penal Code, 1860 – Explained!

This section makes concealing with intent to facilitate design to wage war an offence. It says that whenever someone conceals the existence of a design to wage war against the Government of India by any act or illegal omission, with the intention by such concealment to facilitate the waging of such war, or with the […]
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Section 122 of Indian Penal Code, 1860 – Explained!

This section is one of the few sections in the Indian Penal Code in which preparation to commit an offence has been made punishable. It says that whenever men, arms or ammunition are collected by someone, or preparation is done by him to wage war with the intention of waging war or with the intention […]
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Section 120B of Indian Penal Code, 1860 – Explained!

On the other hand, according to the second clause of this section, any other kind of criminal conspiracy to commit an offence punishable with rigorous imprisonment of less than two years or a criminal conspiracy to commit an act which is prohibited by law or which furnishes ground for a civil action or a criminal […]
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Summary of Section 118 of Indian Penal Code, 1860 – Explained!

The section states that whenever there is an intention on the part of an abettor to facilitate the commission of an offence punishable with death or imprisonment for life, or he knows it to be likely that he will thereby facilitate the commission of such an offence as mentioned above, and he voluntarily conceals, either […]
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Section 117 of Indian Penal Code, 1860 – Explained!

Since the words ‘exceeding ten’ have been used in the section, the section is applicable only where the number of persons abetted is at least eleven. The idea behind this section is to take care of abetment of class conflicts. Abetment of commission of offence by up to ten persons has been kept away from […]
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Section 114 of Indian Penal Code, 1860 – Explained!

The section deals with the situation when the abettor is present while the act or the offence abetted is being committed and in such a situation he shall be deemed to have committed the act or the offence. The use of the expression ‘shall be deemed to have committed’ in this section creates a legal […]
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Section 115 of Indian Penal Code, 1860 – Explained!

The first part of the section says that whenever an abettor abets the commission of any offence for which the punishment provided by the Code is either death or life imprisonment, and that offence is not committed in consequence of the abetment and the Indian Penal Code does not provide expressly about its punishment, the […]
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Section 113 of Indian Penal Code, 1860 – Explained!

Under this section when an abettor abets an act with the intention of causing a particular effect, and an act for which the abettor is liable in consequence of the abetment cause a different effect from that which the abettor intended, the abettor is liable for the effect caused in the same manner and to […]
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Section 116 of Indian Penal Code, 1860 – Explained!

According to the first part of this section, whenever an abettor abets such an offence for which the punishment provided is imprisonment, if the offence abetted is not committed in consequence of the abetment and there is no express provision in the Indian Penal Code to punish such abetment, the abettor shall be punished with […]
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