Section 109 of Indian Penal Code, 1860 – Explained!

The word ‘offence’ has the same meaning as provided by section 40 of the Code. The section does not insist that it shall apply only when the abettor is present at the time of commission of the act, but abetment on his part must be proved along with the fact that the act has been […]
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Section 111 of Indian Penal Code, 1860 – Explained!

The section says that when an abettor abets an act X and a different act Y is done, the abettor is liable for the abetment of the act Y in the same manner and to the same extent as if he had abetted act Y. One condition, however, needs to be fulfilled before the abettor […]
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Section 107 of Indian Penal Code, 1860 – Explained!

Abetment by instigation According to the first clause of section 107 of the Code a person abets the doing of a thing who instigates any person to do that thing. What is instigation has, however, not been defined by the Code. But the first explanation under this section, which should be read with the first […]
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Section 108A of Indian Penal Code, 1860 – Explained!

The Adaptation of Laws Order, 1948 substituted by the words ‘British India’ by the words ‘the Provinces’ which were substituted by the words ‘the States’ by the Adaptation of Laws Order, 1950, which were again substituted by the words ‘India’ by Act III of 1951. This section extends the law of abetment of offences committed […]
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Area, Habitat, Microhabitat and Ecological Niche ! Essay

In fact, the niche if the property of the community and it re­presents the place of the species in the formal community structure the term niche has been used in ecology with a variety of mean­ings and the following discussion will make it clearer. The area of a species or any other taxon refers to […]
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Essay on Capital Punishment in India (334 Words)

Justifying the retention of death penalty, King Dyumatsena observed: “if the offenders were leniently let off, crimes were bound to multiply”. He pleaded that true ahimsa lay in the execution of unworthy persons and therefore, execution of unwanted criminals was perfectly justified. His son Satyaketu, however, protested against the mass scale execution and warned his […]
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Essay on Penology (1184 Words) | Law

With this aim in view, the modem penologists have focused their attention on individualisation of offender through treatment methods. Today, old barbarous methods of punishment such as mutilation, branding, hanging, burning, stoning, flogging, amputation, starving the criminal to death or subjecting him to pillory or poetic punishment, etc. are completely abandoned. Pillory was a method […]
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Section 108 of Indian Penal Code, 1860 – Explained!

Therefore, when definition of abetment has been given where is the need to define abettor because one who abets should be an abettor. At the outset, therefore, it seems that a definition of ‘abettor’ should be unnecessary. But a careful reading of section 107 leads to the conclusion that such is not the case. The […]
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Alienations of Coparcenary Property under the Hindu Law – Explained!

(3) The father, to the extent mentioned below. (4) A sole surviving coparcener, in the circumstances given below. The powers of each of the above four persons are discussed below in necessary details. It is to be remembered that no other coparcener can alienate coparcenary property, unless he is authorised to do so. (1) The […]
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What are the Six Different Types of Ancestral Property under the Hindu Law?

C. Property inherited from collaterals or from females D. Share allotted on partition E. Property obtained by gift or will from a paternal ancestor F. Accretions Each of these is discussed below. A. Property inherited from a paternal ancestor: Property inherited by a male Hindu from his father, father’s father, or father’s father’s father, is […]
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